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The immune system and antibodies.

Our immune system produces a number of different types of antibodies, all of which play different roles to counter viruses and other threats. One of these types is the IgG antibody which is key to understanding of antibodies to counter viruses and other threats. The IgG antibody is key to understanding coronavirus infection and long-term immunity. IgG antibodies appear in the blood around 10 -14 days after infection and remain in the body for several months thereafter.

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the blood is evidence of past coronavirus infection, or vaccination, and could be predictive of immunity.

The AbC-19™ Rapid Test Vs Other Antibody Tests

Using AbC-19™ to positively detect IgG antibodies bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein holds more significance owing to the neutralising capabilities of the IgG antibodies. In contrast, a positive test detecting antibodies to the Nucleocapsid protein does not prove whether the body has developed the capability to defeat the infection.

Two main uses of AbC-19™ test:

1) to confirm immune response following infection,

2) to monitor antibody vaccine response.

Vaccine developers target the spike... So do we.

Vaccines "train" the immune system by using harmless viruses that have been altered to resemble dangerous ones. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine developers have focused on mimicking the spike protein.

Three of the leading vaccine candidates all feature full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers: Oxford University/AstraZeneca, Pfizer/BioNTech, and Moderna.

The role of antibody testing alongside vaccines and previous infections.

The AbC-19™ Neutralising Antibody Test can be deployed across populations and has the potential to inform vaccination programmes and health policy by showing:

- The success and longevity of antibodies detected from the vaccine or previous infection.

- Regular testing can identify how infection spreads through communities by detecting those who have had previous COVID-19 infection.

- Where and why immunity to the virus might be developing.